Hydraulic fracturing is the single most commonly applied completion and intervention approach across the globe, from high-permeability reservoirs at one end of the scale to hard to recover formations at the other. Constantly, changing, adapting and challenging established thinking, it is one of the most successfully applied techniques that is used within the oil and gas industry.
While we are all taught and introduced to fracturing theory and fundamentals, there is no real replacement for extensive operational exposure and experience, in planning, executing and working with hydraulic fracturing operations in a variety of situations. It is through this particular lens that some of the key factors, themes and consistent issues can be fully appreciated, registered and subsequently acted upon.
The purpose of this presentation is to outline, impart and share, those major issues that directly impact the potential success of hydraulic fracturing operations, that have presented themselves to this Lecturer, particularly in new/overseas areas. This feedback is based on more than 30 years of performing Exploration, Appraisal and Development operations; in diverse, frontier and challenging environments across some 35 Countries and many Basins. The themes and advice will be shared by means of actual case histories.
A successful Lecture would result in a refreshed and focused awareness of the relative importance of these key factors on successful operations. The lessons learned are multi-disciplinary in nature and this renewed level of awareness will generate fresh perspective from the attendees, and encourage open discussion with their colleagues from other disciplines, on fracturing understanding and interpretation. This is particularly important as large scale fracturing developments extend into new International areas, where skillsets and experience will sometimes be less well established.
Martin Rylance is the BP Wells Manager for Russia and their Global Advisor for Hydraulic Fracturing and Stimulation. He has worked with BP for 30 Years, since graduating with a BSc in Pure Mathematics. He has numerous publications to his name, is a previous SPE DL, he received the SPE GCS Completions Optimisation Award in 2015, is an SPE Distinguished Member and a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics.
Technically, he has been involved in all aspects of pumping, well interventions and pressure control service. More recently he has specialised in hard to recover resources and fracturing in tectonic and HPHT environments. During his career he has been responsible for the implementation of numerous intervention campaigns, pilots and exploration programmes. Having lived in more than 12 Countries and pumped in more than 35, he has created and managed Teams that have delivered 10s of 1,000’s of treatments around the globe.
Abstract: Unconventional reservoirs have had tremendous success over the last decade due to technical advances including long horizontal wells and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing; however, their potential may be even higher. There are trillions of barrels of oil in these resources, and while wells start out at high rates, they decline quickly and primary recovery factors are low, often in the single digits. This clearly indicates a need for some form of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for these types of reservoirs. In this presentation, the efforts to implement EOR in unconventional reservoirs will be examined in full detail. A number of different injection fluids have been proposed including miscible gas, water and surfactants. Early work focused on modeling and lab studies, and this provided a base of knowledge that was leveraged to carry out pilot field studies. Pilots have been implemented in at least four basins, and the Bakken and Eagle Ford have both had multiple field trials. Huff-n-puff natural gas injection has been shown to be very successful in the Eagle Ford, and today, large-scale field development is occurring there. Because most of the field trials have been completed in North America, the examples presented are mainly from there; however, as these techniques are reproduced in other basins, the worldwide potential is enormous, and that potential also is discussed in the presentation. While much has been achieved over the last decade in unconventional reservoirs, implementing EOR in these types of reservoirs will likely bring about even greater success.
Lecturer’s Name: B. Todd Hoffman
Lecturer’s Employer: Montana Tech
Biography: Todd Hoffman is an Associate Professor in the Petroleum Engineering Department at Montana Tech. He teaches classes on Reservoir Simulation, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and Unconventional Reservoirs. Prior to that, he was a reservoir engineering consultant to the oil and gas industry. Todd has worked on reservoir models for more than 30 fields on six continents, and has published over 50 technical papers. His research involves improved recovery for conventional and unconventional reservoirs, fractured reservoir modeling and history matching. Todd received his B.S. in petroleum engineering from Montana Tech and his M.S. and Ph.D. in petroleum engineering from Stanford University.
Enhanced Reservoir Characterization and Well Performance with Integration of Static and Dynamic Data
Reservoirs can exhibit heterogeneity in terms of porosity, permeability, in shaly sands and in carbonates along with fractures, vugs, including wettability. This heterogeneity affects the well evaluation, horizontal well placement and performance estimation that would be crucial for completion, testing and reservoir management decisions.
This presentation will discuss a methodology for reservoir characterization, geological modeling, and well performance prediction by integrating a complete suite of petrophysical and pressure transient test data to build a detailed geological reservoir model with permeability anisotropy.
Production logging has traditionally been used for problem well diagnosis and flow profile in vertical wells and increasingly in horizontal wells in the recent years. It will be shown how the methodologies and the field examples of horizontal production logging can reveal the heterogeneities and aid to reservoir characterization with the integration of numerical Near Wellbore Modeling (NWM) and the production logging in a multilateral well to obtain layer permeabilities. Production logging also becomes crucial for the diagnostic of fractures, spatially distributed. Several field examples of comprehensive production logs with the analysis will be shown with examples.
Multi well comprehensive static and dynamic data integration is also shown to evaluate water sweep, diagnosing reservoir dynamic performance of heterogeneous reservoirs in a mixed salinity environment.
Murat Zeybek is a Schlumberger Reservoir Engineering Advisor and Global WL Reservoir domain expert based in Moscow. He works on interpretation of wireline formation testers, pressure transient analysis, interference testing, sampling heavy oil, numerical modeling of fluid flow, segment models, fluid flow in porous media, production logging, modeling of water/gas shut off and reservoir monitoring. He is a global mentor in Schlumberger.
He is a technical editor for the SPERE ( Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering), Canadian Journal of Petroleum Technology, and Journal of Petroleum Engineering Science. Murat also served as a committee member for the SPE Annual Technical Conferences, including several SPE Saudi Arabia Technical Symposiums. He has been a discussion leader, key note speaker, panelist and a committee member for several SPE Applied Technology Workshops (ATWs), YPTS, including AAPG, joint SEG, EAGE workshops.
Murat received his B.S. degree from the Technical University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey, and his M.S.
degree and Ph.D. degree both from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, all in Petroleum Engineering.
Michael Collins, Salym Petroleum Development CEO
Michael Collins has 20-year experience in Exploration and Production. He took various positions in wells discipline at Shell projects across the globe, including the Netherlands, the Philippines, Norway, Brunei, and Australia. Before his nomination as CEO of Salym Petroleum Development, Michael held the position of Shell Vice President Wells Joint Ventures. He is from Australia where he graduated with first class honors as a Mining Engineer from the University of New South Wales. Michael is married, enjoys outdoor sports and travel.
Agenda of presentation:
President of Drilbert Engineering Inc
John Mitchell holds a Bs. In Mechanical Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines. He grew up in a family owned drilling company that was founded by his grandfather in the 1950’s. He has more than 40 years experience while working on 35 rigs all over the world, for several major drilling contractors and oil companies. He has worked every position of the rig from Roustabout to Drilling Foreman, and has the unique experience of working both in the field and the office simultaneously. This has given him a unique and intimate perspective of the communication problems that plague the industry.
John Mitchell is the author of the popular “Trouble-Free Drilling” book sold through IADC. Mr. Mitchell has recently published a new book titled “Leadership for the Rig” which is available in English through Pegasus Vertex in Houston, TX.
Sponsor of this SPE Moscow section meeting - The Research and Design Center for Gas and Oil Technologies (R&D Center for Gas&Oil Tech)
The Research and Design Center for Gas and Oil Technologies (R&D Center for Gas&Oil Tech) was established in 2001 by the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas for solving innovation problems facing both oil and gas industry professionals and oil and gas think tanks.
We provide supervision services for well site construction and well workover activities, we develop design and estimate documentation for new well projects, and we carry out expert appraisals and field personnel development programs for such customers as LUKOIL, ROSNEFT, GAZPROMNEFT, TATNEFT, and NGKh. Our current lineup of successful projects includes 280 supervision stations attached to well drilling, well development, well servicing, and well workover sites. We have over 800 employees on board.
The mission of R&D Center for Gas&Oil Tech is:
The ultimate goal of R&D Center for Gas&Oil Tech is to boost the performance of investments in new well projects and well rehabilitation operations by maintaining a high workplace organisation level and enabling high-quality monitoring of production processes.
In the current oil and gas environment, operators have focused on production optimization, effectively squeezing every last drop of oil out of their wells. Autonomous Inflow Control Device (AICD) technology has been deployed as part of the completion in old and new wells resulting in increased oil production by reducing water and gas production. For many years, inflow control devices (ICD), which restrict flow by creating additional pressure, have been used to mitigate this problem. They are however, passive in nature and after the onset of water or gas breakthrough, the choke effect cannot be adjusted without intervention.
The AICD is an active inflow control device with a self-adjustable design to self-regulate and provide greater choke when an unfavorable fluid such as gas and water ingress. This prevents the well from being flooded when unwanted fluids breakthrough, therefore providing the advantage of being able to even out the inflow into well. In addition, it will also choke the unfavorable breakthrough sections of the well and producing from remaining sections leading to greater recovery, lower water, and gas production.
This technology has helped improve recovery in horizontal well across the globe by reducing gas-oil ratio or water cut of the well, thus increasing ultimate oil recovery. The key factor to successful application is a systematic approach in prediction modeling and well design workflow to select a well candidate between Passive and Autonomous inflow control device.
Link for presnetaiton download: http://connect.spe.org/communities/community-home/librarydocuments/viewdocument?DocumentKey=e1a9c6f5-4549-45c7-9d7f-89e2a74c314a
Dr. Ismarullizam Mohd Ismail is the Subsurface Engineering Manager for Tendeka based in Aberdeen, United Kingdom. He received a MSc. and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. He has been working in sand control and inflow control technology for over 15 years in multiple roles, mainly in offshore operation, project engineering and product development. His current work involves developing new inflow control technology, subsurface modeling and managing an inflow control product line. He has designed and modeled AICD/ICD nozzle completions for more than 100 wells across the globe and he also holds various patents for inflow control design. Prior to joining Tendeka, Dr Mohd Ismail worked for various major service companies and carried out university research.
Currently, the methods of marker (tracer) diagnostics, which allow obtaining qualitative and quantitative data on the operation of well intervals without performing downhole operations, are becoming more common in the world. The principal difference between these technologies and traditional well logging methods (GIS) is the ability to monitor the operation of multiple hydraulic fracturing or well intervals over a long period of time with a significant decrease in the resources involved, a reduction in costs and an increase in production safety.
Well studies using marker technologies can improve the efficiency of diagnostics of inflows in wells when developing oil and gas fields and solve a number of important tasks, such as: ∙ evaluation of the well flow profile after the multi-stage hydraulic fracturing; ∙ evaluation of the performance of each step in water and oil; ∙ optimization of technical solutions for well completion in the early stages of field development; ∙ analysis of potential long-term fluid recovery; ∙ obtaining detailed information for analyzing the mutual influence of neighboring wells; ∙ obtaining information on the dynamics of production of the oil reservoir area.
Also, in addition to an alternative GIS method, technologies for marking downhole equipment can be used for flow measurement data in the WEM layouts and in monitoring the integrity of the packers. The key topic of the report is the methodology for integrated assessment of the efficiency, reliability and accuracy of work for various marker technologies available on the market. Often, oil and gas companies decide on the use of marker technologies without any testing or testing, based only on the reputation of the supplier, the duration of its presence in the market or value. The reason for this may be the lack of standardized test methods, as well as experience in sharing best practices between subsoil users. At the same time, marker technologies are a relatively new field of activity in the field of well studies, therefore, it is necessary to approach the assessment of technologies on the basis of objective indicators.The report presents the results and methodology of testing various marker technologies that can be used as technical criteria when choosing a contractor for marker research.
Ovchinnikov Kirill Nikolayevich has extensive experience in the field of downhole operations, coiled tubing services, hydraulic fracturing and oilfield service equipment He is an expert in the field of safety and quality of field operations, standardization of business processes and implementation of quality management systems.
He has many years of industrial experience in leading international service and mining companies in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Egypt, Australia and Russia. MBA with a degree in Management in the Oil and Gas Industry (Curtin University, Australia) and a master’s degree at the RSUGU. Gubkin specialty "Oil and gas business." Member of the Program Committee of the Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers), member of the Eurasian Union of Subsoil Use Experts (ESAS).
Hydrocarbons in oil fields are affected by various secondary processes, such as biodegradation, migration of deep-seated gas, movement of formation water, and evaporation. The degree of hydrocarbon changes depends on many factors: reservoir temperature, tectonic activity, dissection of productive strata, activity of water-bearing horizons, etc. In this connection, oil initially migrated from one source rock varies differentially in different reservoirs and parts of deposits. Using high-resolution gas chromatography, it is possible to identify differences between oil samples from different formations and formation sections. Assessing the degree of secondary changes allows you to identify oils of various reservoirs, in other words, to determine the unique appearance of oils - “oil fingerprints” or otherwise the final members. Having a set of unique “oil fingerprints” - the end members representing the reservoirs being developed, it becomes possible to determine the contribution of individual reservoirs to the production of mixed products. This information can be very valuable both for solving current development management tasks and optimizing a long-term oil field development strategy. This paper presents the results of a pilot project on the introduction of geochemical analysis of oil using oil fingerprinting technology based on high-resolution gas chromatography into the development management process of the Astokhsky section of the Piltun-Astokhsky oil and gas condensate field. operating several layers with the subsequent practical implementation in production. In the course of work, the broader possibilities of the method were also identified, namely, monitoring of interfacial flows, clarification of the geological structure of the field, identification of leaks in production wells.
Dmitry Pavlov in 1999, he graduated from Kazan State University with a degree in Geology of Oil and Gas. In 1999 - 2004 he worked in a number of service companies in the oil and gas sector. He was engaged in geological and hydrodynamic modeling of oil fields in the Ural-Volga region and Western Siberia. In 2005 he worked as a development engineer in the service company TGT Oil & Gas Service. He was engaged in research of optimization of the waterflooding scheme of the Lehvayr oil field (Sultanate of Oman). In 2005-2007 Worked as Lead Development Engineer at TNK-BP Management. He was engaged in the optimization of waterflooding schemes for the Orenburgneft fields. From 2007 to the present, he has been working as a lead development engineer for Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd. (Sakhalin Energy). He is responsible for managing the current development, as well as optimizing long-term development plans for the Piltun-Astokhsky oil and gas condensate and Lunsky gas and condensate fields located on the shelf of Sakhalin Island (RF). His area of interest is the development of oil rims, modern methods for monitoring and managing the development of oil and gas condensate fields, improving efficiency and methods for improving the development of offshore fields.
What is the one idea you would like the members to take away from this lecture?
Various Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have been used to increase oil production and reserves. However, implementing such projects is challenging owing to the higher complexity and larger uncertainty of EOR projects compared with conventional water flooding.
To implement EOR technologies, first, the portfolio of the company should be screened for applicability of the various EOR methods. Next, an appropriate field needs to be chosen for pilot testing of the selected technology. Laboratory experiments are required to determine ranges for the injected EOR fluid properties and fluid-rock-interaction. Pilot testing leads to reducing the subsurface uncertainties but also improves the operating capabilities of the company and economic understanding of EOR projects.
At the example of a polymer EOR project, it is shown that within the last years, significant improvements in predicting polymer EOR performance have been achieved. Injectivity can be assessed using coupled geomechanical-fluid flow models and polymer injection incremental oil recovery can be simulated and optimized taking uncertainty into account. Also, pilot interpretation was advanced by applying the latest tracer technology for reservoir characterisation and monitoring.
In addition to the subsurface assessment, a more holistic view on EOR pilot projects including surface challenges is required to ensure conclusive pilot test results to either implement or drop EOR full-field implementation. A long-term commitment is needed for EOR implementation as well as seamless cooperation between staff operating pilot tests and staff involved in pilot test interpretation.
Dr. Torsten Clemens is a Senior Reservoir Engineering Adviser with OMV Upstream. He used to work in Shell on EOR projects and fractured reservoirs and joined OMV in 2005. In OMV, he is covering EOR/IOR as well as fractured reservoirs and uncertainty management. Torsten published more than 70 technical papers, is a member of various conference committees (SPE, EAGE, WPC), technical editor of several journals and is chairing the IEA EOR Technology Cooperation Program.
This paper discusses the integrated interpretation of PLT data collected in horizontal production (injection) wells with low flow rates and non-uniform inflow (injection) profiles. A factor analysis is performed and normativity of these methods in horizontal wells is defined.
Unlike vertical wells, production logging tool (PLT) techniques (even if adapted to specific conditions) turn to be inefficient in horizontal wells because of stratified flow in case of multiphase (water-oil-gas) fluid and the influence of wellbore trajectory features; this inefficiency is especially obvious in medium- and low-rate wells. It is believed that obtaining accurate and reliable phase profiles in a considerable number of horizontal wells using PLT techniques is very problematic.
Besides, it is only in rare occasions that one of the most important tasks of the PLT survey, which is finding the source of water inflow/breakthrough, can be solved in a horizontal oil well with non-uniform flow profile, even as a mater of quality. Keeping this in mind, gas breakthroughs due to significant negative throttle factor are more reliably identified both by non-stationary temperature logging records and a number of other well logging methods (e.g. SNL, spectral noise logging).
Under these conditions, efficiency of one of the main logging methods – well flow (spinner) measurement – becomes very low. However, alternative geophysical methods (first of all, temperature and water holdup logging) offer a number of additional opportunities. To implement them, the logging technology should include monitoring of well startup and drive change periods. To this end, the logging technology should be designed to allow a series of multi-temporal measurements during these periods.
The role of well testing is to diagnose the flow patterns that are not typical for a classical horizontal well model and estimated reservoir permeability.
Thus, in case of non-uniform low-rate inflow most of the useful information can be obtained by such methods as temperature logging, well testing and partly wellbore fluid analysis methods, which allows to:
Thus, a comprehensive interpretation of results of the above mentioned methods allows us to make quite an accurate assessment of the inflow profile and working zones of the reservoir. On the basis of this information we can optimize regimes of the well and reduce the water inflow and gas breakthrough risks.
Melnikov Sergey Igorevich - Ph.D., Head of International Projects Support Department, Gazprom Neft Scientific and Technical Centre. He has been working in the STC since 2010, specializing in the tasks of integrated monitoring of field development. He supervised surveys on new projects of the Company, including in Eastern Siberia and offshore projects, as well as foreign assets. He is currently heading the department that provides geological support for the Company's foreign assets. In 2015, Sergey got PhD degree in Geophysics. He is the author of more than 30 papers.
Kremenetskiy Mihail Izrailevich. Higher Engineering Education (diploma with distinction) Russian State Oil and Gas University
Doctor of Engineering Science, Professor. Author of more than 170 papers, including monographs, patents for inventions, and two recently published books on the theory and practice of production logging and well-test. Works in the oil and gas industry since 1973, since 2000 research and analytical department specialist of the Sibneft company, since 2008 – expert LLC «GAZPROMNEFT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CENTRE».